Angry protesters have burnt placards and exchanged abuse in clashes between Reclaim Australia and anti-racism rallies in Melbourne.
At least four people have been arrested and dozens sprayed with capsicum spray, which was widely deployed during the four-hour protests on Saturday.
Hundreds of police blocked streets in front of Parliament House – separating the opposing groups.
Small groups of protesters from Reclaim Australia and the United Patriots Front were outnumbered by anti-racism protesters representing Rally Against Racism and United Against Islamophobia.
Police say organisers were pulled aside and warned their behaviour was close to crossing the line into inciting hatred – a criminal offence.
Assistant Commissioner Stephen Leane said a small number of hardline protesters had gone along with the intention of using violence against each other and police.