While all contributions from the 195 countries at the UN’s global climate change summit in Paris will be important – three are critical.
China – the United States and India hold the key to large-scale global progress in reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
So far the UN climate process has faced the challenge of rallying all countries behind one unified resolution.
While this remains crucial efforts to build global consensus are increasingly varied – emphasising the role that multilateral national and subnational policies can play in responding to the unique circumstances faced by societies around the globe.
The Paris meeting reflects this shift – as the UN increasingly looks to shape the individual national commitments of countries around the world into a new dynamic global compact.
This approach creates encouraging possibilities for China – the US and India – which together make up roughly 40% of global carbon emissions – to become global leaders in a new and more sustainable energy future.
The war on terror – that campaign without end launched 14 years ago by George Bush – is tying itself up in ever more grotesque contortions. On Monday the trial in London of a Swedish man, Bherlin Gildo, accused of terrorism in Syria, collapsed after it became clear British intelligence had been arming the same rebel groups the defendant was charged with supporting.
The prosecution abandoned the case – apparently to avoid embarrassing the intelligence services. The defence argued that going ahead with the trial would have been an ‘affront to justice’ when there was plenty of evidence the British state was itself providing ‘extensive support’ to the armed Syrian opposition.
That didn’t only include the ‘non-lethal assistance’ boasted of by the government (including body armour and military vehicles) – but training, logistical support and the secret supply of ‘arms on a massive scale’. Reports were cited that MI6 had cooperated with the CIA on a “rat line” of arms transfers from Libyan stockpiles to the Syrian rebels in 2012 after the fall of the Gaddafi regime.
Clearly the absurdity of sending someone to prison for doing what ministers and their security officials were up to themselves became too much. But it’s only the latest of a string of such cases. Less fortunate was a London cab driver Anis Sardar, who was given a life sentence a fortnight earlier for taking part in 2007 in resistance to the occupation of Iraq by US and British forces. Armed opposition to illegal invasion and occupation clearly doesn’t constitute terrorism or murder on most definitions – including the Geneva convention.
But terrorism is now squarely in the eye of the beholder. And nowhere is that more so than in the Middle East – where today’s terrorists are tomorrow’s fighters against tyranny – and allies are enemies – often at the bewildering whim of a western policymaker’s conference call.